After Independence, a new administrative division in Brazil classified Bahia as a province of the Empire. As a consequence, the area was thus governed by an elected president. Nevertheless, some sectors of the public opinion did not hide the disapproval and disappointment they felt towards the centralized monarchy, which was installed after Independence. Many demonstrations and battles arose as a result, which gained the name “Mata Maroto” (Kill the Rascal – a nickname for the Portuguese). On receiving the news of the abdication of D. Pedro I, the population also began to demand the expulsion of the Portuguese. The federalist movements expanded and forced the adoption of the Additional Act of 1834, which gave the provinces greater autonomy. The general instability of this period also manifested itself in the Cemiterada, which constituted the near destruction of a cemetery, located in what is Campo Santo today.
It was expected that the end of the monarchy would only occur after the death of D. Pedro II, venerated as a “wise and good man”. But during the wave of repeated military crises, the two political parties, Liberal and Conservative, could not come up with solutions to the problems created by the disintegration of slavocracy. The Republican movement was thus launched, and from the 15th to the 16th of November 1889 the country was proclaimed the Republic of the United States of Brazil, with the total agreement of the state of Bahia.